Objectives Microarray analyses of sinus mucosa in pediatric patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have recently demonstrated increased messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL5 and CXCL13 and of the innate immune mediators β-defensin 1 (DEFB1), serum amyloid A2 (SAA2), and serpin B4. The objectives of this study were to determine whether these gene products were expressed at the protein level in pediatric sinus mucosa and to determine their localization.
Design Immunohistochemical analysis was used to identify protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4. Coimmunofluorescence staining of inflammatory cells was performed to further evaluate expression of CXCL5 and CXCL13.
Setting Pediatric tertiary care facility.
Patients Fifteen children with CRS who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery and 8 children who underwent craniofacial or neurosurgical procedures for abnormalities other than sinusitis.
Main Outcome Measures Protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4 in pediatric sinus mucosa.
Results Ciliated and basal cells in the pseudostratified epithelium stained positively for the 5 mediators examined in both cohorts. Except for serpin B4, goblet cells did not stain for any mediators in either cohort. Glandular cells stained positively for all 5 mediators in both cohorts. Coimmunofluorescence staining of inflammatory cells showed that CXCL13 was expressed in macrophages, T and B cells but not in neutrophils. CXCL5 was detected only in T cells.
Conclusions CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4 were expressed at the protein level in the sinus mucosa of controls and pediatric patients with CRS and exhibited cell-specific localization. These mediators, not typically associated with pediatric CRS, may be involved in the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion seen in pediatric CRS.