Submitted for Publication: August 27, 2012; final revision received April 17, 2013; accepted May 8, 2013.
Study concept and design: Adams, Ghanem, Rubinfeld.
Acquisition of data: Adams, Stachler, Rubinfeld.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Adams, Hall, Velanovich, Rubinfeld.
Drafting of the manuscript: Adams, Ghanem, Rubinfeld.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Adams, Rubinfeld.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Rubinfeld.
Study supervision: Ghanem, Rubinfeld.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Disclaimer: The ACS NSQIP and the hospitals participating in the ACS NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the American Head and Neck Society Eighth International Conference on Head and Neck Cancer; July 24, 2012; Toronto, Ontario, Canada.