Submitted for Publication: July 11, 2013; final revision received November 18, 2013; accepted November 24, 2013.
Published Online: January 23, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.6443.
Study concept and design: Liu, Azizian, Sorger, Taylor, Cleary, Preciado.
Acquisition of data: Liu, Azizian, Sorger, Preciado.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Liu, Azizian, Taylor, Reilly, Preciado.
Drafting of the manuscript: Liu, Azizian, Preciado.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Liu, Preciado.
Obtained funding: Cleary, Preciado.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Liu, Azizian, Sorger, Reilly, Cleary, Preciado.
Study supervision: Cleary, Preciado.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Ms Liu is a predoctoral candidate completing a portion of her doctoral thesis work at the laboratories of Intuitive Surgical, Inc, the manufacturer of the da Vinci Surgical System. Drs Azizian and Sorger are research and development scientists employed at Intuitive Surgical, Inc. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Funding for this project was provided in part through a gift from the government of Abu Dhabi to Children’s National Medical Center to establish the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation; in part through a fellowship from Intuitive Surgical, Inc; and in part by The Johns Hopkins University internal funds. Experimental facilities were provided by Intuitive Surgical, Inc.
Role of the Sponsor: Other than Intuitive Surgical, Inc, the sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Linan Zhang, PhD, fabricated the drill attachment guide while a visiting researcher at Children’s National Medical Center. Dr Zhang received no financial compensation.