Submitted for Publication: August 12, 2013; final revision received October 25, 2013; accepted November 7, 2013.
Published Online: January 30, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.6215.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition of data: Chen.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Chen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Chen.
Obtained funding: Chen.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Judson.
Study supervision: Roman, Sosa, Judson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by the James G. Hirsch, MD, Endowed Medical Student Research Fellowship at Yale University School of Medicine.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the ACS-NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.