Submitted for Publication: September 19, 2013; final revision received January 2, 2014; accepted February 13, 2014.
Published Online: April 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2014.267.
Study concept and design: Tomblin, Oleson, Walker, Moeller.
Acquisition of data: Tomblin, Walker, Moeller.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Tomblin, Oleson, Ambrose.
Drafting of the manuscript: Tomblin, Oleson, Ambrose, Walker.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Tomblin, Oleson, Walker, Moeller.
Statistical analysis: Tomblin, Oleson.
Obtained funding: Tomblin, Moeller.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Tomblin, Moeller.
Study supervision: Moeller.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders grant RO1 DC009560-03.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the families and children for their willingness to participate in the study. The families were reimbursed for participation. We note the important contributions by Marlea O’Brien in project management and the contributions of colleagues Melody Harrison, Pat Roush, Tom Page, and Shana Jacobs at the University of North Carolina; Connie Ferguson and Marcia St. Clair, at the University of Iowa; Meredith Spratford, Colleen Fitzgerald, Emilie Sweet, and Lauren Unflat-Berry at the Boys Town National Research Hospital for recruitment and data collection; and Wendy Fick and Rick Arenas for work on data entry and database management. (All were staff and therefore paid.)