Submitted for Publication: January 7, 2014; final revision received March 5, 2014; March 25, 2014.
Published Online: May 15, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2014.676.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: All authors.
Obtained funding: Murphy.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Murphy, Darrow.
Study supervision: Volsky, Darrow.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentations: Portions of this study were presented at the Society for Ear, Nose, and Throat Advances in Children (SENTAC) annual meeting; December 2, 2012; Charleston, South Carolina; the completed study was presented at the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) annual meeting; April 27, 2013; Arlington, Virginia.
Additional Contributions: All work was performed at the Children’s Hospital of The King’s Daughters and Eastern Virginia Medical School. Charles Sukenik, PhD, Chairman of the Department of Physics at Old Dominion University, assisted in designing the measurement apparatus.