Submitted for Publication: June 1, 2014; final revision received July 16, 2014; accepted August 5, 2014.
Published Online: September 25, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2014.2067.
Study concept and design: Shah, Rangel, Boss.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Shah, Stey, Jatana, Boss.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jatana, Boss.
Statistical analysis: Shah, Stey, Boss.
Obtained funding: Boss.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Shah, Jatana, Rangel, Boss.
Study supervision: Boss.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars program and the US Department of Veterans Affairs (Dr Stey) and by the Johns Hopkins Clinician Scientist Award and grant 1K08 HS22932-01 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Dr Boss).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The supporting institutions had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This article was presented at the American College of Surgeon’s National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Annual Meeting; July 27, 2014; New York, New York.