Submitted for Publication: May 8, 2014; final revision received August 21, 2014; accepted October 16, 2014.
Published Online: December 4, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2014.3002.
Study concept and design: Alper, Doyle.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Alper, Teixeira, Swarts.
Drafting of the manuscript: Alper, Teixeira, Doyle.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Alper, Swarts, Doyle.
Statistical analysis: Doyle.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Alper, Teixeira, Swarts.
Study supervision: Alper, Swarts.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (P50 DC007667) and by the Hamburg and Eberly Endowments to the Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This work was presented at the 2014 American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology meeting in conjunction with the Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings; May 17, 2014; Las Vegas, Nevada.
Additional Contributions: Julianne Banks, BA, and Jenna A. El-Wagaa assisted in participant screening, recruitment, evaluation, preparation, and data recording. Financial compensation specifically related to this study was not provided beyond their staff salary. Drs Alper, Teixeira, and Swarts, assisted by Ms Banks and Ms El-Wagaa, performed all clinical and experimental procedures, Drs Alper and Teixeira abstracted the data from the video images and, with Dr Swarts, performed a first pass transformation and analysis of the data.