Submitted for Publication: August 18, 2014; final revision received October 31, 2014; accepted November 10, 2014.
Published Online: December 26, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2014.3302.
Study concept and design: Torre, Hoffman, Margolick, Plankey.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hoffman, Springer, Cox, Young, Margolick, Plankey.
Drafting of the manuscript: Torre, Hoffman, Springer, Cox, Margolick, Plankey.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hoffman, Young, Margolick, Plankey.
Statistical analysis: Torre, Hoffman, Springer, Cox, Margolick.
Obtained funding: Hoffman, Young, Margolick, Plankey.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hoffman, Young, Margolick, Plankey.
Study supervision: Hoffman, Young, Margolick, Plankey.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), via interagency agreement with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, for Cooperative Agreements U01 AI-035042-18 (MACS) and U01 AI-034994-17 (WIHS). Support of the Baltimore–Washington, DC, MACS site was provided by the NIAID, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (U01-AI-35042) and General Clinic Research Center (UL1-RR025005). Support of the Metropolitan Washington, DC, WIHS site was provided by the NIAID (U01-AI-34994) and by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), NIH (U01-HD-32632).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of their respective academic or government agencies.
Additional Contributions: Chuan-Ming Li, MD, PhD, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, provided ancillary statistical analyses on a portion of the data set, and Ying Li, PhD, Georgetown University Medical Center, provided technical assistance in the preparation of this article. They were not compensated for their contribution.