Submitted for Publication: October 30, 2014; final revision received March 12, 2015; accepted April 15, 2015.
Published Online: June 4, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2015.0940.
Study concept and design: Hollenbeak, Mackley, Koch, Schaefer, Goldenberg.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hollenbeak, Kulaylat, Mackley, Schaefer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hollenbeak, Kulaylat, Schaefer, Goldenberg.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hollenbeak, Mackley, Koch, Schaefer.
Statistical analysis: Kulaylat, Schaefer.
Obtained funding: Hollenbeak, Mackley.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hollenbeak.
Study supervision: Hollenbeak, Mackley, Koch, Goldenberg.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 5 R03 DEOOO019511 from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health (Drs Hollenbeak, Mackley, Koch, and Goldenberg and Mr Schaefer).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors.
Additional Contributions: The Applied Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, the Office of Research, Development and Information of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Statistics, Information Management Services Inc, and the SEER Program tumor registries participated in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database.