To provide comprehensive temporal trend analysis of 5-year relative survival rates of laryngeal cancer using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database; and to expand on prior reports by including inclusion of laryngeal tumor location, stage, age at diagnosis, treatment strategy, and histologic grade.
Retrospective cohort analysis using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the National Cancer Institute. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data were used to design 5 cohorts of patients with laryngeal cancer: 1977-1978, 1983-1984, 1989-1990, 1995-1996, and 2001-2002. Five-year survival rates were analyzed according to tumor site, stage, and grade; age at diagnosis; and treatment strategy. The joinpoint regression model was used to assess survival trends and their statistical significance.
Among patients with supraglottic cancer, 5-year relative survival rates for distant disease worsened over time while rates for local and regional disease did not change (P = .01 and P > .05, respectively). For localized glottic cancer, survival remained stable from 1977-1978 to 2001-2002. However, patients with regional and distant glottic cancer demonstrated a significant decrease in survival in the past 3 decades (P < .001). This trend was independent of treatment strategy. Finally, the proportion of well-differentiated tumors in patients with regional laryngeal cancer decreased over time (P < .001 for supraglottic and P = .007 for glottic).
A decreasing 5-year survival trend was found among patients with glottic cancer who had regional disease and in all patients with distant disease. Histopathologic trends not previously reported in those with laryngeal cancer seem to parallel those seen in other tobacco-related cancers. These trends may reflect the effect of birth cohorts and implicate the relationship between carcinogenic exposure and host factors, rather than the influence of treatment.