Premedications consisted of dexamethasone sodium phosphonate, 10 mg intravenously, and midazolam, 2 to 7 mg intravenously. Standard ASA monitoring was performed. Induction was achieved with propofol, 1.8 to 3 mg/kg, fentanyl citrate, 0.6 to 3.3 μg/kg, and lidocaine hydrochloride, 0.5 to 1.4 mg/kg. Either a North America Classic (San Diego, California) or an Ambu (Glen Burnie, Maryland) LMA, size 4 or 5, was inserted. Adequate LMA placement was confirmed by capnography, visible chest rise during positive pressure ventilation, adequate seal at 20 cm H2O, and adequate exhaled gas volume. A fiberoptic swivel connector was attached to the LMA for FFB insertion. Spontaneous ventilation was maintained while delivering isoflurane, isoflurane and nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, or desflurane. The operating room and equipment were arranged before induction (Figure 1). The FFB display tower was placed in full view of both the surgeon and the anesthesia care provider. On completion of the chondrolaryngoplasty, if more cosmetic surgery was scheduled, the LMA was converted to an endotracheal tube (ETT); otherwise, the administration of anesthetic was terminated shortly thereafter. After the patient's emergence from anesthesia, the LMA or ETT was removed, and the patient was transferred to the recovery room. Postoperative patients were monitored in the hospital for at least 4 hours to watch for airway compromise. No patients developed stridor or had hoarseness at 4 hours after the procedure.