To determine the association between toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and rhinosinusitis in children.
Eighteen-year retrospective review of medical records.
Tertiary children's hospital.
A total of 76 patients were identified as having TSS. Twenty-three of them were also diagnosed as having either acute or chronic rhinosinusitis, with no other source of infection in 17 cases.
Of the 23 patients with TSS and rhinosinusitis, 10 were admitted to the intensive care unit, 4 required pressors, and 6 received surgical intervention. Surgical intervention for sinus disease included bilateral antral lavage in 5 patients and bilateral maxillary antrostomy and ethmoidectomy in 1 patient.
Main Outcome Measures
Patients with TSS and rhinosinusitis were identified using a rigorous set of definitions and detailed data pertaining to history, imaging studies, microbiologic studies, and hospital course.
Correlation of the data revealed 4 patients who met the criteria for proven TSS and proven rhinosinusitis, 2 patients who met the criteria for probable TSS and proven rhinosinusitis, 7 patients who met the criteria for proven TSS and possible rhinosinusitis, and 3 patients who met the criteria for probable TSS and possible rhinosinusitis.
Rhinosinusitis was found to be the primary cause of TSS 21% of the time in this series. Rhinosinusitis should be considered the primary cause of TSS when another site of infection has not been identified. Once the link is made, prompt otolaryngology consultation and sinus lavage should be considered.