To determine whether previously published changes are maintained over time in children after adenotonsillectomy for sleep-disordered breathing using the validated Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S).
Prospective, nonrandomized interventional study.
Ambulatory surgery center affiliated with an academic medical center.
Long-term follow-up data were available (ranging from 2.4 to 3.6 years after adenotonsillectomy) for 44 of the 71 patients who completed our initial study comparing PSQ and CPRS-R:S data before and 6 months after surgery.
Parents completed the PSQ and CPRS-R:S at least 2 years after surgery.
Main Outcome Measures
Follow-up PSQ data and long-term changes in age- and sex-adjusted T scores for all 4 CPRS-R:S behavior categories (oppositional behavior, cognitive problems or inattention, hyperactivity, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] index) were determined for each patient. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the data.
Globally, across time, most variables remained below baseline levels (P < .05). There was a significant increase in PSQ scores during follow-up, but over this period they did not reach baseline levels. Comparing short-term with long-term follow-up, the Conners scores in all behavioral categories did not increase significantly (ADHD index, P = .61; cognitive problems or inattention, P = .02; hyperactivity, P < .001; and oppositional behavior, P < .001). The ADHD index at long-term follow-up was not different from that at baseline, a finding that might be attributable to the high degree of variability in this measure.
Improvements in sleep experienced by children after adenotonsillectomy for sleep-disordered breathing were not as great 2.5 years after surgery as they were 6 months after surgery but were still significant compared with baseline levels. Improvements in behavior were maintained in all categories of the Conners scores except for the ADHD index.