Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare soft-tissue cancer of the head and neck, accounting for 1% to 2% of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors. It is more commonly found in the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Leiomyosarcoma of the head and neck is associated with a history of radiation therapy, retinoblastoma, chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus, or AIDS. We describe what we believe is the first case of an LMS of the sphenoid sinus in the English-language literature and include a review of the literature on LMS of the paranasal sinuses, which identified approximately 50 cases of primary sinonasal LMS.
Preoperative, noncontrast, axial, and reformatted coronal computed tomograms demonstrating an erosive mass in the right sphenoid sinus. A, Axial image. B, Coronal image.
Histologic appearance of the tumor showing the spindle cell and fascicular morphological features (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×200).
High-power image of focal nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×400).
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