To evaluate the clinical, audiologic, and temporal bone computed tomograpic findings in patients with hemifacial microsomia and to use the OMENS (each letter of the acronym indicates 1 of the following 5 dysmorphic manifestations: O, orbital asymmetry; M, mandibular hypoplasia; E, auricular deformity; N, nerve involvement; and S, soft tissue deficiency) grading system to assess possible correlations between the severity of dysmorphic features with the type of abnormalities in the temporal bone and with degree of hearing deficit.
Tertiary care children's hospital.
Forty patients with hemifacial microsomia.
Mandibular hypoplasia and auricular abnormalities were the most common clinical manifestations, present in 39 patients (97%) and 38 patients (95%), respectively. Conductive hearing loss was noted in 35 patients (86%) and sensorineural hearing loss in 4 patients (10%). Facial nerve weakness was present in 20 patients (50%). Twenty patients had unilateral aural atresia, 12 patients had unilateral aural stenosis, and 7 patients had bilateral anomalies. Moderate hypoplasia or atresia of the middle ear was noted in 36 patients (90%) and ossicles were malformed in 30 patients (75%). Hypoplasia of the oval window was the most common inner ear abnormality.
Severity of craniofacial features (total OMENS score) significantly correlated with the degree of temporal bone abnormality, but no correlation was noted with the degree or type of hearing loss. We recommend the following: (1) use of the OMENS classification system for documentation and analysis of dysmorphic finding in hemifacial microsomia; (2) complete audiologic evaluation in all patients with hemifacial microsomia regardless of the type of craniofacial abnormalities; and (3) temporal bone computed tomography for further evaluation of hearing deficit.