To evaluate the integration and accuracy of A (amplitude)-mode ultrasound–based surface matching for noninvasive registration of the head into a frameless computer-aided surgery system for otorhinology and skull base surgery.
Experimental study and case series.
Academic medical center.
Twelve patients underwent anterior and paranasal skull base surgery with the routine use of a computer-aided surgery system.
A computer-aided surgery system, based on an optoelectronic localizer, was used to track the skull and the surgical tools, including the A-mode ultrasound probe. The A-mode probe was a 10-MHz immersion transducer. An acoustic lens attached to the transducer focused the ultrasonic beam to a depth of 1 to 10 mm. Accuracy tests were performed for the ultrasound setup. Different surface point distributions were evaluated with respect to matching accuracy on a human cadaver skull specimen equipped with fiducial markers. The matching comparison was based on the fiducial registration error. For the clinical evaluation, the laboratory setup was transferred to the operating room.
Main Outcome Measures
Noninvasive registration of the skull by using A-mode ultrasound in computer-aided surgery (practical and clinical measurements).
The accuracy tests on the human skull specimen revealed that the mean ± SD fiducial registration error was 1.00 ± 0.19 mm in the best series for A-mode ultrasound surface matchings and was robust with respect to different sets of surface points. The mean ± SD root mean square error from the 12 A-mode ultrasound matchings in the patient study was 0.49 ± 0.20 mm.
A-mode ultrasound surface matching can be used as a noninvasive and accurate registration procedure in computer-aided surgery of the head.