To evaluate the treatment, perioperative management, and outcome of infants who underwent repair of congenital tracheal stenosis. We hypothesized that early resection and tracheoplasty with early weaning of ventilatory support results in less mucosal injury, and thus better outcome.
Retrospective study from 1986 to 1996.
Tertiary care children's hospital.
Seventeen consecutive infants with congenital tracheal stenosis, aged from birth to 16 months. Fifteen patients had complete tracheal rings, 6 of whom also had a left pulmonary artery sling. Fourteen patients underwent either tracheoplasty or resection and reanastomosis of the trachea, both facilitated by cardiopulmonary bypass.
Six patients underwent resection and reanastomosis; 4 patients were extubated within 2 to 5 days without sequelae. There was 1 unrelated perioperative death. Two patients required reintubation. Eight patients required tracheoplasty due to severe tracheal stenosis and had variable postoperative courses. Seven of 14 patients required 0 to 1 postoperative bronchoscopies. Seven of 14 patients required 2 to 7 bronchoscopies for granulation tissue formation, cicatrix, graft collapse, and tracheitis. One patient required numerous procedures and revision tracheoplasty for cicatrix and stenosis.
Correction of short-segment (<5 rings) tracheal stenosis by resection and reanastomosis of the trachea with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass and early weaning of ventilatory support is recommended. Tracheoplasty using either the castellation technique or slide tracheoplasty is recommended in the treatment of infants with severe (long segment) tracheal stenosis.