To determine the range and prevalence of otologic disorders in patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) and provide a general review of its multiple otolaryngological manifestations.
Ectodermal dysplasia family conference.
Sixty-nine individuals with ED were evaluated. The average age was 11 years (range, 1-56 years). Most were male patients (44 [64%]), and most had Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome/hypohidrotic ED (42 [61%]), with the remaining having Hay-Wells, Clouston, and ectrodactyly ED clefting syndromes and unclassified types of ED.
Questionnaire including a quality-of-life assessment modeled after the Otitis Media 6 instrument, physical examination, screening audiogram, and tympanometry.
Of the 69 patients, 15 (22%) had a known history of hearing loss, and over half reported some level of difficulty processing verbal information (30 patients [43%] reported speech problems and 4 patients [6%] required hearing aids). A history of otitis media was common, with 15 patients (21%) presenting with tympanostomy tubes in place. The mean ± SD quality-of-life rating was 2.0 ± 1.1 (range 1-7), with lower scores suggesting less of a problem. On physical examination, 18 patients (26%) had pinna anomalies. One case of advanced cholesteatoma and 2 cases of external auditory canal stenosis were identified. Of the 24 patients who received 4-tone screening audiogram, 2 (8%) had a highest pure-tone average threshold of 50 to 65 dB, whereas 5 patients (21%) had a 30- to 45-dB threshold, with the remaining having a 0- to 25-dB threshold.
In our study, which is, to our knowledge, the largest reported collection of ED patients evaluated for otologic disease, most patients were found to have 1 or more otologic abnormalities, ranging from auricular anomaly to complications of otitis media to profound hearing loss.